Updated on 2024/06/27


Bradford J. Lee


  • Bachelor of Arts (Linguistics)   Coursework ( 1999.5   University of Hawaii, Hilo (USA) )

  • Master of Arts (Applied Linguistics)   Coursework ( 2014.12   University of Newcastle (Australia) )

  • Doctor of Education (TESOL)   Thesis ( 2018.8   Anaheim University (USA) )

Research Interests

  • Learner Motivation

  • Pronunciation Instruction

  • speech perception

  • Writing media

Research Areas

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Education

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Linguistics

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Foreign language education


  • Anaheim University   Graduate School of Education   TESOL   Doctor's Course   Completed

    2015.2 - 2018.8

  • Unviersity of Hawaii, Hilo   Linguistics   College of Hawaiian Language   Graduated

    1997.9 - 1999.6

  • University of Newcastle   Humanities   Applied Linguistics   Master's Course   Completed

    - 2014.12

Research History

  • Fukui University of Technology   Organization for Fundamental Education   Professor


Professional Memberships

  • Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT)

  • Pragmatics SIG of JALT


Qualification acquired

  • Japanese Language Proficiency Test - N1

  • All Japan Iaido Federation - Renshi 6th Dan



  • Tracking learner engagement in the L2 classroom with experience sampling Reviewed International coauthorship International journal

    Hayo Reinders, Bradford J. Lee, Euan Bonner

    Research Methods in Applied Linguistics   2 ( 2 )   100052 - 100052   2023.5

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    Learner engagement is a major predictor of success in L2 acquisition (Hiver et al., 2021). It is therefore important to be able to measure and track engagement levels over time. This may provide theoretical insight into the conditions (both internal and external to the learner) in which engagement is more likely to occur, as well as offer implications for pedagogical practices to create such conditions. However, current research on L2 engagement suffers from a number of shortcomings: 1) Much of it is carried out in highly controlled research settings and lacks ecological validity, 2) Scaling, for example by increasing the number of research contexts or participants, is often impossible, 3) Current methods are often highly intrusive, for example requiring learners to interrupt learning activities in order to respond to questions, 4) Many studies are of short duration and thus unable to capture variation over time, and, 5) Many studies only investigate small student populations in a single environment. To overcome these shortcomings, we designed a mobile application for use by teachers in class to record L2 engagement levels through experience sampling, a method used to collect data on learner experiences in-the-moment. In this article we describe the application, the process by which we validated the instrument, and demonstrate its usefulness as a research and pedagogical instrument based on a 1-year pilot study.

  • Auditory precision hypothesis-L2: Dimension-specific relationships between auditory processing and second language segmental learning Reviewed International coauthorship International journal

    Kazuya Saito, Magdalena Kachlicka, Yui Suzukida, Katya Petrova, Bradford J. Lee, Adam Tierney

    Cognition   229 ( Dec 2022 )   105236   2022.8

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    Growing evidence suggests a broad relationship between individual differences in auditory processing ability and the rate and ultimate attainment of language acquisition throughout the lifespan, including post-pubertal second language (L2) speech learning. However, little is known about how the precision of processing of specific auditory dimensions relates to the acquisition of specific L2 segmental contrasts. In the context of 100 late Japanese-English bilinguals with diverse profiles of classroom and immersion experience, the current study set out to investigate the link between the perception of several auditory dimensions (F3 frequency, F2 frequency, and duration) in non-verbal sounds and English [r]-[l] perception and production proficiency. Whereas participants’ biographical factors (the presence/absence of immersion) accounted for a large amount of variance in the success of learning this contrast, the outcomes were also tied to their acuity to the most reliable, new auditory cues (F3 variation) and the less reliable but already-familiar cues (F2 variation). This finding suggests that individuals can vary in terms of how they perceive, utilize, and make the most of information conveyed by specific acoustic dimensions. When perceiving more naturalistic spoken input, where speech contrasts can be distinguished via a combination of numerous cues, some can attain a high-level of L2 speech proficiency by using nativelike and/or non-nativelike strategies in a complementary fashion.

  • Listener engagement: The missing link in research on accented speech Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching   2022.3

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    Reverse linguistic stereotyping (RLS) is a process whereby a speaker’s perceived group membership triggers differential perception of aspects of their speech. RLS has been suggested to cause drops in intelligibility and recall, though why perception of a non-existent accent can negatively affect listening outcomes has not been sufficiently elucidated. The current study suggests an explanation may lie in differential levels of engagement among listeners. A sample of 430 Japanese university students listened to a short speech from either a speaker of Chinese Pronunciation of English or Received Pronunciation and rated them on aesthetics, comprehensibility, perceived intelligibility, engagement, and recall. Multiple linear regression suggested that only engagement served as a significant predictor to recall, though the other variables all had significant indirect effects when engagement was included as a mediating variable. These results indicated that listener engagement is a key variable which may help improve our understanding of accented speech perception.

  • The effects of perception- vs. production-based pronunciation instruction Reviewed International coauthorship International journal

    Bradford Lee, Luke Plonsky, Kazuya Saito

    System   88 ( 2020 )   102185   2019.11

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    While research has shown that provision of explicit pronunciation instruction (PI) is facilitative of various aspects of second language (L2) speech learning (Thomson & Derwing, 2015), a growing number of scholars have begun to examine which type of instruction can best impact on acquisition. In the current study, we explored the effects of perception- vs. production-based methods of PI among tertiary-level Japanese students of English. Participants (N = 115) received two weeks of instruction on either segmental or suprasegmental features of English, using either a perception- or a production-based method, with progress assessed in a pre/post/delayed posttest study design. Although all four treatments groups demonstrated major gains in pronunciation accuracy, performance varied considerably across groups and over time. A close examination of our findings suggested that perception-based training may be the more effective training method across both segmental and suprasegmental features.

  • A Survey of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in TESOL Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee, Dale C. Jeffery

    PanSIG Journal 2023   142 - 150   2024.5

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    The TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) Organization launched an initiative in June 2021 with the goal of increasing DEI (diversity, equity, and inclusion) across all aspects of the field. To investigate the current state of affairs, this study surveyed 101 present and former instructors, representing a wide range of genders, ages, working locations, and ethnicities. Experiences were found to vary widely, with 57.4% indicating they felt some form of discrimination while applying for TESOL jobs, and 60.4% reporting continued discrimination once on the job. Participants also reflected on how these experiences influenced how they felt about themselves, the industry, and their teaching practices.

  • Monitoring engagement in the foreign language classroom: Learners’ perspectives Reviewed International coauthorship International journal

    Bradford J. Lee, Hayo Reinders, Euan Bonner

    Languages   9 ( 2 )   53   2024.1

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    Over the last three years, we have engaged in the development of a web‑based mobile application called Classmoto that uses the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement in near real‑time, with minimal disruption to the teaching and learning experience. The current study implemented Classmoto in an intact university language class in a Japanese university for an entire semester. We focused on learners’ experiences of using the app for two purposes: (1) to determine its face validity, and (2) to identify any constraints on and benefits from its practical application in an authentic pedagogic context, from the learners’ perspective. The results show that the instrument was able to measure the three sub‑domains of engagement, as designed. In addition, participants praised the ESM for (a) giving them an opportunity for self‑reflection, and (b) enabling the instructor to react to the students’ feedback instantaneously, with no negative feedback reported.

  • Does TESOL teacher motivation matter? Values vs. rewards Reviewed International coauthorship International journal

    Lee, B. J., Broadbridge, J., Park, H., Shimada, M., & Freeman, R. F.

    More than words: Teaching for a better world. KOTESOL Proceedings 2022   21 - 33   2022.10

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    This study sought to explore language teachers’ values related to, and rewards gained from, their teaching jobs and careers. Responses to a modified version of the instrument used in the Kassabgy et al. (2001) study were obtained from 368 in-service instructors spanning the globe and analyzed by factor analyses. As in Kassabgy et al., intrinsic motivation was found to be central to reported feelings of job satisfaction and motivation, which were positive overall despite disparities between values and the realities of the job. However, slightly different factors and loadings were found, namely, a trend away from relationships with coworkers. One hypothesis is that the development of social networking in the past 20 years may have been an important influence.

  • Effects of perceived race on comprehensibility, intelligibility, and accentedness ratings Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

    In P. Ferguson, & R. Derrah (Eds.), Reflections and New Perspectives. JALT.   2021 ( 1 )   251 - 257   2022.8

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    Reverse linguistic stereotyping (RLS) is the phenomenon whereby listeners’ speech perception is altered by information (or assumptions) about a speaker (e.g., gender, age, social class, ethnicity, nationality). However, while listeners tend to downwardly appraise speakers’ accents and comprehensibility when they perceive them to be of a different language community, past research has generally relied solely on Likert scale data. The current study suggests that qualitative investigation is also necessary to validly interpret raters’ responses. After collecting ratings of accentedness, comprehensibility, language proficiency, and intelligibility from 223 Japanese university students listening to a Japanese speech under a matched-guise, students reported what factors influenced their ratings. Listeners rated the speech of the Caucasian guise as significantly more accented. A key finding was that while comprehensibility ratings were equal, they were qualitatively different. Caucasian guise members cited pronunciation significantly more than the Asian-guise group, who reported grammatical and lexical factors as informing their rating decisions.

  • Assumptions of speaker ethnicity and the effect on ratings of accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

    Language Awareness   2022.6

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    While listeners tend to downgrade speakers’ accent and comprehensibility when they perceive them to be from a different language community—a process known as reverse linguistic stereotyping (RLS)—research has generally relied solely on quantitative data such as Likert scale ratings. The current study sought to extend the analysis further by investigating the reasons which informed raters’ decisions. A sample of 210 Japanese university students (six groups of n = 35) were asked to listen to recorded speeches by native Japanese speakers. In a matched-guise design, the groups were either shown photos of a Japanese, Caucasian, or Southeast Asian male, and asked to provide ratings of accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility. They were then asked to report what factors influenced their comprehensibility ratings. In line with previous research, listeners rated non-Japanese guises as significantly more accented than the Japanese one, though differences in intelligibility were non-significant. A key finding was that while comprehensibility ratings were statistically comparable, the rationales given were qualitatively different. Groups who viewed the Caucasian or Southeast Asian photographs cited pronunciation issues significantly more than the Japanese group which reported grammatical and lexical factors as the reasons behind their downgraded ratings.

  • Facemask occlusion’s impact on L2 listening comprehension Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee, Edwin T. Hart

    Speech Communication   139 ( 2022 )   45 - 50   2022.4

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    Wearing a facemask impacts oral communication as it is both a barrier to the acoustic signal and occludes nonverbal cues such as lip movements and facial expressions. However, while past studies have suggested that these factors do not cause significant impediments to comprehension among speakers of the same first language, the current study investigates the impact facemasks have in the context of second language learners. N = 192 participants were divided into three groups of n = 64 and asked to listen to an 89 s speech. To isolate the effects of visual cues on listening comprehension, the same audio recording was used for all experimental groups. Condition One was a video of a speaker with no mask. Condition Two was a video of the same speaker wearing a mask. Condition Three was an audio recording. The significant finding was that participants in the second (masked) condition scored significantly lower on subsequent comprehension quizzes than the other two. Implications to language instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic will be discussed.

  • Writing medium’s impact on memory: A comparison of paper vs. tablet Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    Technology in Language Teaching & Learning   3 ( 2 )   51 - 66   2021.12

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    Studies comparing writing media typically compare different modes of writing (e.g., keyboard typing vs. writing, smartphone tapping vs. writing, etc.). The current study sought to investigate the cognitive outcomes of a more direct comparison: tablet- versus paper-based writing. Thirty-two speakers of L1 English were tasked with memorizing 20 Japanese kanji (stroke orders, Japanese readings, and English translations). Ten kanji were practiced (10 times each) on paper; the other 10 were practiced on an iPad. The kanji that were practiced on paper were more likely to be correctly translated into English at both the post- and delayed posttest, though Japanese scores were statistically equal. Of most intrigue was that while both groups were written with equal accuracy at the posttest, only the kanji practiced on paper showed a significant increase at the delayed posttest (after a period of 24 hours). The results of exit questionnaires indicated that the participants were divided on their preference of writing medium but were unanimous in their agreement that tablets should have a place in modern classrooms. One significant finding is that participants acknowledge the difficulty of tablet-based writing but conclude that what is necessary is more practice – not the avoidance or abandonment of the technology.

  • Analyzing writing fluency on smartphones by Saudi EFL students Reviewed International coauthorship International journal

    Bradford J. Lee, Ahmed A. Al Khateeb

    Computers and Composition   62 ( Dec 2021 )   102667   2021.10

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    The proliferation of smartphones has required the advent of an entirely new system of input, distinct from both handwriting and computer-based typing. This input method, tapping , has largely been ignored by researchers to date, perhaps due to the misconception that tapping is mechanically and cognitively equivalent to typing. Therefore, while the typing-writing contrast has been well researched, very little is known about the dynamics of using a smartphone for composition. The current study investigated how the medium used affected writing fluency, as operationalized by transcription speed. A transcription task was carried out by 150 Saudi university students, both on paper and by smartphone, in either their first language (Arabic) or their second language (English). Composing by smartphone was slower for both groups, but only reached statistical significance under the second language condition. While these findings suggest that smartphones may not be ideal for classwork, follow-up surveys revealed that students remained positively disposed towards their use in spite of their experience. Implications such as the students’ willingness to compromise speed for accuracy (e.g., spellcheck) indicate that teachers should try to find ways to incorporate smartphone use while being cognizant of the potential pitfalls.

  • Rural Japanese students’ sentiments regarding Japanese teachers of English Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

    In P. Clements, R. Derrah, & P. Ferguson (Eds.), Communities of teachers & learners. JALT.   2020 ( 1 )   145 - 151   2021.8

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    English is not a single entity, but rather composed of infinite varieties known collectively as World Englishes. Published research in the Japanese context has overwhelmingly reported students’ preference for the Standard American variety, with Japanese English being typically subject to scorn. However, the current study argues that this established narrative has been subject to sampling bias due to homogeneous study locales (mostly in-and-around the Tokyo area) and sample selection (mostly English or Communication majors). Our precursor research on non-English majors residing in rural Japan found no statistical difference between the number of students preferring native English teachers vs. Japanese ones (Lee & Bailey, 2020). Following this line of research, the current study reports on a qualitative investigation into the sentiments of this underrepresented population. The factors of effective communication, interest in language learning strategies, and peace-of-mind were found to be behind the students’ positive sentiments
    towards Japanese Teachers of English.

  • Flipped classrooms in the age of remote learning Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 51 )   114 - 121   2021.4

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    The flipped classroom methodology is a student-centered teaching style which inverts the traditional order of instruction. Lectures or lessons which introduce new material and concepts are conducted outside of class before synchronous classroom sessions. This allows the synchronous sessions to immediately dive into the material with no preamble, often involving student-centered, active learning tasks which are thought to develop learner autonomy and agency. The current qualitative study sought to investigate 169 Japanese university students’ prior levels of experience with this teaching style and discover their cognition towards it after experimenting with it for a full semester. Results found that 36.7% of students had some degree of prior experience in this learning style, and that 70.4% of students felt that it was somewhat, or very effective as a learning style. Students’ comments, both in favor of and against the methodology, are presented and discussed.

  • Tracking students’ academic motivation longitudinally Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 51 )   122 - 132   2021.4

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    Academic motivation is one of the most important factors which influences the degree of success a student will experience in achieving their academic goals. The current study represents the second phase of a longitudinal study which tracks a group of Japanese university students as they progress through their four-year college education. Following precursor research, 532 participants were given a Japanese version of the Academic Motivation Scale, which measures motivation for academic pursuits in seven scales (three types of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, plus amotivation), based on the self-determination theory of motivation. Results indicated that, in line with results from the first phase of the study, students remained largely motivated by intrinsic factors. However, one intrinsic factor was shown to slightly decrease, while one extrinsic factor slightly increased, indicating a slight trend toward extrinsic motivation. Data and motivational profiles for students who dropped out between Phases One and Two are reported, though the sample size (n = 11) was too small to produce sufficient statistical power for analysis.

  • Comparing writing vs. smartphone tapping speed Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    Teaching with Technology 2020: Selected Papers from the JALTCALL 2020 Conference   1   78 - 90   2021.4

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    As COVID-19 pushes the world into emergency remote teaching mode, many teachers struggle with designing online or computer-mediated language learning activities due to having little to no prior experience. It is imperative to understand how the use of technology affects not only the processes of learning, but also the outcomes. Particularly in Japan, where smartphone ownership among adults aged 18–34 topped 96% in 2018 (Pew Research Center, 2019), many students use their phones to access their schools’ learning management systems (LMS) and complete assignments (i.e., mobile learning). The current study therefore sought to elucidate how different writing media can affect the execution of a simple writing task by examining the differences in transcription speeds between handwriting and ‘tapping’ on a smartphone. A total of 176 participants were divided into 3 groups (L1-English, writing in English; L1-Japanese, writing in Japanese; and L1-Japanese, writing in English), and their times-on-task were recorded. While no difference was found for the L1-English group, the L1-Japanese groups were found to be significantly faster at one task than the other (tapping in Japanese and writing in English). Pedagogical implications suggest the need for instructors to be aware of the extreme difficulty language learners may have when using mobile devices for writing tasks.

  • Comparing factual recall of tapped vs. handwritten text Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    Acta Psychologica   212 ( 2021 )   103221   2020.11

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    As a result of the rushed transition to remote teaching because of the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have suddenly been forced to design mobile-assisted language learning (MALL; m-learning) activities, mostly for the first time in their careers. However, it is imperative that instructors realize that the challenge is greater than simply converting paper-based assignments into a digital format. There has been very little research done examining the cognitive effects of writing on a smartphone, compared to writing on paper. The current study therefore sought to examine how recollection of content differed depending on the medium used for notetaking. A population of 138 Japanese university students of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) were asked to transcribe a short text, either by paper or by smartphone, and then quizzed on the content immediately afterwards. Students who wrote the text by hand were found to have significantly greater recollection of the content compared to those who had ‘tapped’ on smartphones. These results follow precursor research which indicated that Japanese students compose significantly slower on their phones in English (Lee, 2020b), and wrote significantly less in writing tasks (Lee, 2019, 2020a) than handwriting counterparts.

  • The effects of proficiency and textual enhancement technique on noticing Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    System   96 ( 2021 )   102407   2020.11

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    Textual enhancement (TE) refers to manipulation of a text to make specific linguistic targets more perceptually salient. Typically, the purpose of TE is to implicitly draw learners’ attention to target forms, as it has been postulated that noticing the gap between one’s interlanguage and the target is a first step towards acquisition (Smith, 1991, 1993). This study investigated the effects of two forms of TE on the acquisition of the English third-person singular /~s/ and /~es/ forms among 382 Japanese university students. Two grammaticality judgement tasks in a pre/posttest design indicated small, but significant, increases among the two experimental groups compared to a comparison group (unenhanced text), and a control group (no treatment). The relative effect of language proficiency was also examined, with students of lower proficiency in each experimental group showing greater improvement over their control groups than their counterparts of higher proficiency. Post-interviews revealed that participants generally had not been successful at noticing the target form, and that they were predominately engaged in processing the readings for content, not form. Overall results suggest that TE is slightly effective, but it is argued that its effects may be enhanced by combining it with training students in effective learning strategies

  • Enhancing listening comprehension through kinesthetic rhythm training Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    RELC Journal   53 ( 3 )   567 - 581   2020.8

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    Research has suggested that the type and frequency of learning strategies employed by successful listeners is greater than their less successful counterparts. Based on evidence that metacognitive strategies (e.g. listening-for-gist; inferring meaning) are more effective than cognitive ones (e.g. word-for-word translation), this study sought to measure the effect that rhymical training had on the listening comprehension acuity of 313 Japanese university students. The theoretical basis was that rhythmical priming assists learners parse the input based on prosody and identify salient words by stress. Small but significant increases were observed among students who were rhythmically trained, compared to a comparison group that received explicit instruction but no rhythm training, and a “true” control group that received no treatment. These results extend the feasibility of input enhancement, rhythmic priming, and perception-based instruction beyond the traditional grammar and pronunciation instruction domains.

  • Japanese tertiary-level students' cognition of World Englishes Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   243 - 253   2020.5

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    Estimates vary widely as to the number of people who study English globally, from Kachru and Nelson’s (2006) estimate of 700 million, to Beare’s (2019) figure of over 1.5 billion. However, these statistics are somewhat misleading as English is not a single entity, but rather a multitude of different dialects of the language (e.g., American English, British English), more accurately described as World Englishes (WE). The current study investigated the cognition of WE among 473 Japanese university students, revealing that while a majority of the participants knew that different varieties of English existed (n = 366; 77.4%), they could not describe in detail what those differences were (n = 351; 74.2%). Among those who could name some differences, pronunciation was cited the most often (n = 99; 81.1%), followed by a small number noting grammatical differences (n = 2; 1.6%), and none suggesting syntax or pragmatic factors such as appropriateness as being different among varieties of WE. When asked their preference of English instructor, citizens of inner circle countries (e.g., the USA, UK, Australia, or Canada) were rated the highest (M = 3.48), followed closely by Japanese English teachers (M = 3.42). Theoretical rationale and pedagogical implications are discussed.

  • Differences in Japanese college students' academic- and L2-motivation Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   254 - 266   2020.5

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    Japan continues to expand its federally funded English initiatives, with English now a compulsory subject starting from the 4th grade and continuing through to senior high school. While motivation for learning English has been heavily researched, little has been done to understand the underlying academic motivation among the population. As understanding the general landscape would allow for new insights into English-specific research, this study investigated first-year undergraduate students by applying the Academic Motivation Scale to an entire incoming freshman class (N=606). It was found that intrinsic motivation matrices were slightly positive overall (M=5.07 on a 7-point Likert scale), which contrasts with precursor research suggesting that students at this university were predominantly extrinsically motivated towards the study of English (Lee, 2017). Slight but significant differences were detected, depending on the participants’ academic major, gender, and residential status (i.e., international or domestic).

  • A qualitative analysis of three textual enhancement techniques Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   268 - 276   2020.5

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    The concept of noticing is a key tenet of second language acquisition (SLA). Teachers have long been using every method available to get their students to pay attention, in the hopes of increasing the likelihood that their lessons will ‘stick’, a term known as intake in SLA. The current study investigated the efficacy of three textual enhancement (TE) techniques at drawing N = 168 Japanese university students’ awareness to the desired language feature, the first step towards noticing. Results indicated that contrary to predictions, participants were only moderately able to identify the target of instruction (47.6%; 74.4%; 58.3%, respectively). These results carry significant implications for not only language teachers, but for SLA researchers who have thus far been baffled as to why TE research has often yielded conflicting results.

  • Smartphone tapping vs. handwriting: A comparison of writing medium Reviewed International journal

    Bradford J. Lee

    EuroCALL Review   28 ( 1 )   15 - 25   2020.3

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    Mobile-learning (m-learning), or mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), has been the object of a great deal of research over the last twenty years. However, empirical work in this area has largely failed to produce generalizable conclusions due to variation in methodology, target feature, and task-type (Burston, 2014, 2015). As schools in Japan begin to join the growing number of classrooms worldwide using mobile-based assignments, this study examined how Japanese EFL students’ writing task production differed depending on writing medium (i.e., handwritten on paper vs. tapped on a smartphone). Writing samples were collected from N = 1,449 participants, divided into smartphone- or paper-based groups, across a spectrum of English proficiencies. Handwritten submissions were found to be significantly longer than those composed on a smartphone (p < .001, d = .54), with differences being more pronounced for learners of higher proficiency than lower ones. Significance and effect sizes steadily dropped from p < .001, d = .66 for advanced learners to p = .168, d = .38 for beginners. These results indicate that care must be taken in designing m-learning activities, and that students must be given adequate training in smartphone-input skills (i.e., tapping) and time to acclimate before using such tasks for high-stakes assessments.

  • Japanese tertiary students' access to smartphones and their feelings regarding their use in the EFL classroom Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 49 )   216 - 224   2019.11

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    When institutional stakeholders contemplate the introduction of a new technology into the classroom, they often are concerned with the uses and functions of the tech and sometimes overlook a very basic aspect: students’ access and level of comfort using the technology required. This study was conducted to assess the level of access students at a small private engineering university had to smartphones, a technology that stakeholders believe will be used to access and complete assignments on a new asynchronous learning site the university is rolling out in the upcoming academic year. While the results showed that nearly 100% of students surveyed (N=225) did have access to the requisite tech, only 23.56% of respondents (n=53) indicated that they were excited about using them for coursework. The reasons students gave for their willingness or hesitation are presented, and the implications of the introduction of the portal site are discussed in terms of English education and general motivation. Some suggestions are also given of how to most effectively address students’ concerns.

  • A case study of writing task performance: Smartphone input vs. handwriting Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 49 )   225 - 231   2019.11

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    M-learning (mobile phone-based learning) is quickly becoming prevalent at educational institutions around the world. However, while there have been studies (though few and limited) examining the differences between typing on a computer vs. handwriting, there have been no similar studies investigating smartphone use. This is the first empirical study comparing performance on English writing tasks between the media of smartphones and handwriting, and also the first to investigate using different media for composition in a second language (L2). Writing samples submitted via both media were collected from 2 freshman English majors over a 14-week period and analyzed for word count. Results for both participants showed statistically significant decreases in production when using a smartphone to the effect sizes of d=-1.13 and -2.34, respectively. This is a significant result that educators should be cognizant of when assigning online tasks. Implications for the classroom and possible ways to mitigate the negative effects of smartphone use are also discussed.

  • On the Application of Communicative Approach in English Education at Fukui University of Technology Reviewed

    Naoya NYUGAKU, Masashi KOYAMA, Bradford LEE and Sam THOMSON

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   373 - 381   2017.5

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    In 2013 Fukui University of Technology launched the SPEC (the Special Program for English Communication) program, which focuses on improving students’ communication skills in English. The main purpose of this program is to develop human resources who can be actively involved in international arenas after graduation. The first- and second-year students learn everyday conversations in English and the third- and fourth-year students learn business English or technical English depending on their interest. Besides the regular subjects, extracurricular studies and activities are provided for the students and they can immerse themselves in a favorable situation for English learning throughout their college life.
    Key Words : 英語教育,SPEC,コミュニケーション能力

  • A Survey of Private Japanese University Students' Attitudes Towards English Education Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   304 - 310   2017.5

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    Motivation researchers have suggested a multitude of constructs, each of which propose that there are several forces residing within a person that drive them to do the things they do, all of which have varying implications when it comes to learning a second language. This study, following Dornyei’s L2 Motivational Self System construct of motivation, investigated a group of 85 university students in Japan, currently studying English. As part of a larger project using mixed methods and various angles of investigation, this study used qualitative measures (one-on-one interviews) to elicit personalized and individual responses from the participants. Upon analysis of the interview data, it was revealed that a plurality of the participants were motivated to learn English for reasons Dornyei calls the Ought-to L2 Self, i.e., they believed they should study to “meet expectations or to avoid possible negative outcomes” (Dornyei, 2010b, p. 80).
    Key Words : TESOL, Second Language Acquisition, L2 Motivational Self System, Individual Differences

  • Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference Reviewed

    Bradford Lee, Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   289 - 295   2017.5

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    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225 first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relationship to the two groups’ English proficiency to search for any statistically significant differences between the groups. It was found that the highest- and lowest-ranked learning styles (auditory learning and individual learning) were the same for both Group A (higher proficiency) and Group B (lower proficiency), but to a statistically significant degree of difference.
    Key Words : TESOL, Second Language Acquisition (SLA), Learner Style, Individual Differences

  • Tertiary-level English Education in Japan: A Study on Motivational Factors Reviewed

    Bradford Lee, Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   296 - 303   2017.5

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    The complex processes involved in learning a second language include a multitude of cognitive and affective factors. One of these affective factors, motivation, has been suggested to be the most important element in learning, which influences the degree to which a second language will be acquired. This has made its study one of the most exciting and promising areas of research in second language acquisition over the past few decades. This study examined the motivations of a group of university students in Japan in regards to English education. Two groups (high and low proficiency) of first-year students (N = 85) were tested on four types of intrinsic motivation (interest in the English language, cultural interest, attitude towards learning English, and ethnocentrism). Correlational relationships were measured, with only ethnocentrism found to have a (small) statistically significant correlation with proficiency.
    Key Words : TESOL, Motivation, Second Language Acquisition, Individual Differences

  • Analyzing the impact of visual aids on complexity, accuracy, and fluency in English L2 learners' discourse: a case study Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 46 )   312 - 321   2016.6

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    The design and implementation of tasks which will expand and develop students’ knowledge or ability to use a language is the fundamental function of the language instructor. Knowing how the design of the tasks will affect the learners’ output can offer us valuable insights which will in turn help to create focused activities in accordance with the instructor’s goals. This study examines the effect that introducing a visual aid, a common practice in many language classrooms, has on the language production of two higher intermediate learners of English.

  • Bilingualism's Influence on Cognitive Ability Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 45 )   352 - 358   2015.7

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    The present research into bilingualism focuses on the aspect of executive control (EC) and how it can relate to cognitive ability. Specifically, bilingual individuals face EC challenges such as mental-set shifting tasks, conflicting-response suppression, and information or task monitoring processes continually while producing or interpreting language. Current research seems to indicate that this constant stimulus gives bilingual individuals a slight advantage in EC processes compared to their monolinguals peers; developing earlier and performing at a higher rate as the subject advance in later life.

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  • Communication Spotlight: Business 2

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Bradford Lee( Role: Joint author)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-066-0

  • Academic Reading 1

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Mark Rossiter( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2024.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-043-1

  • Step into Academic English: Reading & Writing 1

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Ben Naismith, Andrea Castro( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2024.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-106-3

  • Step into Academic English: Listening & Speaking 2

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Ben Naismith, Andrea Castro( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2024.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-104-9

  • Step into Academic English: Listening & Speaking 1

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Ben Naismith, Andrea Castro( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2024.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-103-2

  • Reading Fluency 3

    Julian Thomlinson( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.11  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-046-2

  • Reading Fluency 2

    Julian Thomlinson( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.11  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-046-2

  • Reading Fluency 1

    Stuart McLean, Brandon Kramer, Myles Grogan, Alastair Graham-Marr, David Moran( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.11  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-046-2

  • Speaking of Speech 2

    Charles LeBeau( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.11  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-096-7

  • Academic Reading & Writing 2

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Mark Rossiter( Role: Edit ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.7  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-024-0

  • Communication Spotlight: Business 1

    Alastair Graham-Marr, David Moran, Michael Greenberg, Jack Perkins, Steve Paydon( Role: Joint editor ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2020.7  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-065-3

  • Communication Spotlight Intermediate: Speaking Strategies & Listening Skills

    Alastair Graham-Marr( Role: Joint editor ,  Editing / Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2020.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-031-8

  • Fast Forward to Fluency 2

    Charles Browne, Brent Culligan, Joseph Phillips( Role: Joint editor ,  Editing / Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2020.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-053-0

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  • JALT Distinguished Selected Papers

    2022.8   Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT)   Effects of perceived race on comprehensibility, intelligibility, and accentedness ratings.

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

Other research activities

  • Special Issue Editor (AI Technology in Language Education)


  • Special Issue Editor (Redefining Second Language Acquisition)


  • Kanai Educational Institution Support for Early-Career Scientists 2022


  • Kanai Educational Institution Support for Early-Career Scientists 2020


  • Kanai Educational Institution Support for Early-Career Scientists 2018


  • Editorial Board Member (International Journal of Applied Linguistics)


  • Editorial Board Member (Technology in Language Teaching & Learning)


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Teaching Experience

  • Business Communication 3 & 4

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology

  • Listening 1 & 2

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology

  • TOEIC Preparation

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology


Social Activities

  • How to increase your English listening scores

    Role(s): Appearance, Lecturer

    Fukui University of Technology  FUT Open Seminar  2022.8

Academic Activities

  • Site Chair International contribution

    Role(s): Planning, management, etc., Panel moderator, session chair, etc., Review, evaluation, Peer review

    PanSIG 2024  2022.8