Updated on 2021/10/13


Bradford Lee


  • Bachelor of Arts (Linguistics)   Coursework ( 1999.5   University of Hawaii, Hilo (USA) )

  • Master of Arts (Applied Linguistics)   Coursework ( 2014.12   University of Newcastle (Australia) )

  • Doctor of Education (TESOL)   Thesis ( 2018.8   Anaheim University (USA) )

Research Interests

  • Second Language Acquisition


  • Pronunciation Instruction

  • Learner Motivation

  • Learning Style

  • Writing media

Research Areas

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Linguistics

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Foreign language education

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Education


  • Anaheim University   Graduate School of Education   TESOL   Doctor's Course   Completed

    2015.2 - 2018.8

  • Unviersity of Hawaii, Hilo   Linguistics   College of Hawaiian Language   Graduated

    1997.9 - 1999.6

  • University of Newcastle   Humanities   Applied Linguistics   Master's Course   Completed

    - 2014.12

Research History

  • Fukui University of Technology   Assistant Professor

    2013.4 - 2015.3

  • Fukui University of Technology   Lecturer

    2015.4 - 2020.3

  • Fukui University of Technology   Associate Professor


Professional Memberships

  • Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT)

Qualification acquired

  • Japanese Language Proficiency Test - N1



  • The effects of perception- vs. production-based pronunciation instruction Reviewed International coauthorship

    Bradford Lee, Luke Plonsky, Kazuya Saito

    System   88 ( 2020 )   102185   2019.11

     More details

    While research has shown that provision of explicit pronunciation instruction (PI) is facilitative of various aspects of second language (L2) speech learning (Thomson & Derwing, 2015), a growing number of scholars have begun to examine which type of instruction can best impact on acquisition. In the current study, we explored the effects of perception- vs. production-based methods of PI among tertiary-level Japanese students of English. Participants (N = 115) received two weeks of instruction on either segmental or suprasegmental features of English, using either a perception- or a production-based method, with progress assessed in a pre/post/delayed posttest study design. Although all four treatments groups demonstrated major gains in pronunciation accuracy, performance varied considerably across groups and over time. A close examination of our findings suggested that perception-based training may be the more effective training method across both segmental and suprasegmental features.

  • Flipped classrooms in the age of remote learning Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   51   126 - 133   2021.10

  • Tracking students’ academic motivation longitudinally. Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   51   134 - 144   2021.10

  • Analyzing writing fluency on smartphones by Saudi EFL students Reviewed International coauthorship

    Bradford J. Lee, Ahmed A. Al Khateeb

    Computers and Composition   62 ( Dec 2021 )   102667   2021.10

  • Rural Japanese students’ sentiments regarding Japanese teachers of English Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

    In P. Clements, R. Derrah, & P. Ferguson (Eds.), Communities of teachers & learners. JALT.   2020 ( 1 )   145 - 151   2021.8

  • Comparing writing vs. smartphone tapping speed Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Teaching with Technology 2020: Selected Papers from the JALTCALL 2020 Conference   1   78 - 90   2021.4

  • Comparing factual recall of tapped vs. handwritten text Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Acta Psychologica   212 ( 2021 )   103221   2020.11

  • The effects of proficiency and textual enhancement technique on noticing Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    System   96 ( 2021 )   102407   2020.11

  • Enhancing listening comprehension through kinesthetic rhythm training Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    RELC Journal   1 - 15   2020.8

  • Japanese tertiary-level students' cognition of World Englishes Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee, Justin L. Bailey

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   243 - 253   2020.5

  • Differences in Japanese college students' academic- and L2-motivation Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   254 - 266   2020.5

  • A qualitative analysis of three textual enhancement techniques Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   268 - 276   2020.5

  • Smartphone tapping vs. handwriting: A comparison of writing medium Reviewed

    Bradford J. Lee

    EuroCALL Review   28 ( 1 )   15 - 25   2020.3

     More details

    Mobile-learning (m-learning), or mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), has been the object of a great deal of research over the last twenty years. However, empirical work in this area has largely failed to produce generalizable conclusions due to variation in methodology, target feature, and task-type (Burston, 2014, 2015). As schools in Japan begin to join the growing number of classrooms worldwide using mobile-based assignments, this study examined how Japanese EFL students’ writing task production differed depending on writing medium (i.e., handwritten on paper vs. tapped on a smartphone). Writing samples were collected from N = 1,449 participants, divided into smartphone- or paper-based groups, across a spectrum of English proficiencies. Handwritten submissions were found to be significantly longer than those composed on a smartphone (p < .001, d = .54), with differences being more pronounced for learners of higher proficiency than lower ones. Significance and effect sizes steadily dropped from p < .001, d = .66 for advanced learners to p = .168, d = .38 for beginners. These results indicate that care must be taken in designing m-learning activities, and that students must be given adequate training in smartphone-input skills (i.e., tapping) and time to acclimate before using such tasks for high-stakes assessments.

  • Japanese tertiary students' access to smartphones and their feelings regarding their use in the EFL classroom Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 49 )   216 - 224   2019.11

     More details

    When institutional stakeholders contemplate the introduction of a new technology into the classroom, they often are concerned with the uses and functions of the tech and sometimes overlook a very basic aspect: students’ access and level of comfort using the technology required. This study was conducted to assess the level of access students at a small private engineering university had to smartphones, a technology that stakeholders believe will be used to access and complete assignments on a new asynchronous learning site the university is rolling out in the upcoming academic year. While the results showed that nearly 100% of students surveyed (N=225) did have access to the requisite tech, only 23.56% of respondents (n=53) indicated that they were excited about using them for coursework. The reasons students gave for their willingness or hesitation are presented, and the implications of the introduction of the portal site are discussed in terms of English education and general motivation. Some suggestions are also given of how to most effectively address students’ concerns.

  • A case study of writing task performance: Smartphone input vs. handwriting Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 49 )   225 - 231   2019.11

     More details

    M-learning (mobile phone-based learning) is quickly becoming prevalent at educational institutions around the world. However, while there have been studies (though few and limited) examining the differences between typing on a computer vs. handwriting, there have been no similar studies investigating smartphone use. This is the first empirical study comparing performance on English writing tasks between the media of smartphones and handwriting, and also the first to investigate using different media for composition in a second language (L2). Writing samples submitted via both media were collected from 2 freshman English majors over a 14-week period and analyzed for word count. Results for both participants showed statistically significant decreases in production when using a smartphone to the effect sizes of d=-1.13 and -2.34, respectively. This is a significant result that educators should be cognizant of when assigning online tasks. Implications for the classroom and possible ways to mitigate the negative effects of smartphone use are also discussed.

  • A Survey of Private Japanese University Students' Attitudes Towards English Education Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   304 - 310   2017.5

     More details

    Motivation researchers have suggested a multitude of constructs, each of which propose that there are several forces residing within a person that drive them to do the things they do, all of which have varying implications when it comes to learning a second language. This study, following Dornyei’s L2 Motivational Self System construct of motivation, investigated a group of 85 university students in Japan, currently studying English. As part of a larger project using mixed methods and various angles of investigation, this study used qualitative measures (one-on-one interviews) to elicit personalized and individual responses from the participants. Upon analysis of the interview data, it was revealed that a plurality of the participants were motivated to learn English for reasons Dornyei calls the Ought-to L2 Self, i.e., they believed they should study to “meet expectations or to avoid possible negative outcomes” (Dornyei, 2010b, p. 80).
    Key Words : TESOL, Second Language Acquisition, L2 Motivational Self System, Individual Differences

  • Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference Reviewed

    Bradford Lee, Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   289 - 295   2017.5

     More details

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225 first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relationship to the two groups’ English proficiency to search for any statistically significant differences between the groups. It was found that the highest- and lowest-ranked learning styles (auditory learning and individual learning) were the same for both Group A (higher proficiency) and Group B (lower proficiency), but to a statistically significant degree of difference.
    Key Words : TESOL, Second Language Acquisition (SLA), Learner Style, Individual Differences

  • Tertiary-level English Education in Japan: A Study on Motivational Factors Reviewed

    Bradford Lee, Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   296 - 303   2017.5

     More details

    The complex processes involved in learning a second language include a multitude of cognitive and affective factors. One of these affective factors, motivation, has been suggested to be the most important element in learning, which influences the degree to which a second language will be acquired. This has made its study one of the most exciting and promising areas of research in second language acquisition over the past few decades. This study examined the motivations of a group of university students in Japan in regards to English education. Two groups (high and low proficiency) of first-year students (N = 85) were tested on four types of intrinsic motivation (interest in the English language, cultural interest, attitude towards learning English, and ethnocentrism). Correlational relationships were measured, with only ethnocentrism found to have a (small) statistically significant correlation with proficiency.
    Key Words : TESOL, Motivation, Second Language Acquisition, Individual Differences

  • On the Application of Communicative Approach in English Education at Fukui University of Technology Reviewed

    Naoya NYUGAKU, Masashi KOYAMA, Bradford LEE and Sam THOMSON

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   373 - 381   2017.5

  • Analyzing the impact of visual aids on complexity, accuracy, and fluency in English L2 learners' discourse: a case study Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 46 )   312 - 321   2016.6

     More details

    The design and implementation of tasks which will expand and develop students’ knowledge or ability to use a language is the fundamental function of the language instructor. Knowing how the design of the tasks will affect the learners’ output can offer us valuable insights which will in turn help to create focused activities in accordance with the instructor’s goals. This study examines the effect that introducing a visual aid, a common practice in many language classrooms, has on the language production of two higher intermediate learners of English.

    Key Words : TESOL, English Education, CAF Analysis

  • Bilingualism's Influence on Cognitive Ability Reviewed

    Bradford Lee

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 45 )   352 - 358   2015.7

     More details

    The present research into bilingualism focuses on the aspect of executive control (EC) and how it can relate to cognitive ability. Specifically, bilingual individuals face EC challenges such as mental-set shifting tasks, conflicting-response suppression, and information or task monitoring processes continually while producing or interpreting language. Current research seems to indicate that this constant stimulus gives bilingual individuals a slight advantage in EC processes compared to their monolinguals peers; developing earlier and performing at a higher rate as the subject advance in later life.
    Key Words : Bilingualism, Executive Control

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  • Communication Spotlight: Business 2

    Alastair Graham-Marr, Bradford Lee( Role: Joint author)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2021.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-065-3

  • Communication Spotlight: Business 1

    Alastair Graham-Marr, David Moran, Michael Greenberg, Jack Perkins, Steve Paydon( Role: Joint editor ,  Editing, Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2020.7  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-065-3

  • Communication Spotlight Intermediate: Speaking Strategies & Listening Skills

    Alastair Graham-Marr( Role: Joint editor ,  Editing / Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2020.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-031-8

  • Fast Forward to Fluency 2

    Charles Browne, Brent Culligan, Joseph Phillips( Role: Joint editor ,  Editing / Proofing)

    ABAX ELT Publishers  2020.4  ( ISBN:978-1-78547-053-0


Other research activities

  • Int'l Journal: Editorial Board Member (Technology in Language Teaching & Learning)



Teaching Experience

  • TOEIC Preparation

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology

  • Listening 1 & 2

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology

  • Business Communication 3 & 4

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology