Updated on 2022/01/12


Christopher Pirotto


  • Bachelor of Arts (Political Science)   Coursework ( 2009.9   University of California, San Diego (UCSD) )

  • Master of Arts (Political Science)   Coursework ( 2016.8   San Diego State University )

  • M.A. TESOL   Coursework ( 2020.7   University of Birmingham )

Research Areas

  • Others / Others


  • University of California San Diego   Political Science   Graduated

    - 2009.9

  • San Diego State University   Political Science   Master's Course   Completed

    - 2016.8

Research History

  • English Language School (Japan)   EFL Instructor

    2011.8 - 2014.10

  • Fukui University of Technology   Assistant Professor


Professional Memberships

  • JALT Fukui Chapter


  • Japanese Association for Language Teaching (JALT)


  • JALT Testing and Evaluation SIG


  • JALT College and University Educators SIG


  • Korea TESOL


Committee Memberships

  •   Conference Reading Committee Chair  


  •   Treasurer  

    2017.8 - 2018.10   

  •   Program Chair  


  •   OnCUE Journal Distribution Coordinator  




  • Interest Learning and Ingenuity in Toys Reviewed

    Takashi Akazawa, Christopher Pirotto, Kiyotaka Yamashita

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 51 )   217 - 222   2021.9

  • Device of communication to deepen learning Reviewed

    Takashi Akazawa, Christopher Pirotto, and Takayuki Kumagai

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 50 )   378 - 383   2020.10

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    In today's learning environment, there is a need for proactive and deep learning. It needs to be a place where certain skills and knowledge can be acquired, and thinking, judgement, and expression skills can be cultivated. This is necessary to cultivate the learners of today to not only be critical thinkers, but to also be individuals who are able to express their own thoughts. In university classes, it is necessary to devise ways for the students to foster these type of communication skills. This paper is a discussion of how the three authors encourage and promote the development of communication skills in their classroom.

  • A Comparison of Japanese EFL Learners Expectations and Realities from a Short-Term Study Abroad Program

    Christopher Pirotto


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    This dissertation explores the expectations and experiences of nine Japanese university students as they participated in a sixteen-day short-term study abroad program to California. Questionnaires, student journals, writing samples, and group interviews were used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data to determine the expectations students had for this study
    abroad program. Data revealed students’ expectations regarding the improvement of L2 ability, the program in general, social interactions with natives, and expectations specific to their future. The data was then analyzed to compare these expectations to the experiences
    students had. It was determined that while a couple of the expectations matched the reality of the program, several of the expectations students held did not line up with the realities the students experienced. In order to better align expectations with the realities students will experience while on this short-term study abroad program, suggestions were made for improvements to the program.

  • Comparison of Responses to Truancy in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA Reviewed

    Takashi Akazawa, Christopher Pirotto, Sam Thomson, Takayuki Kumagai

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 49 )   355 - 361   2019.12

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    Using information taken from media sources and government websites, this paper reports on the truancy situation in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States while also comparing how the schools and governments of these three countries deal with truancy.

  • Student SLA Beliefs at Two Japanese High Schools Reviewed

    Christopher Pirotto, Christine Pemberton

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 49 )   232 - 241   2019.12

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    This paper compares the beliefs about second-language acquisition (SLA) of students at two different senior high schools in Japan. Participants were surveyed about behaviorist, innatist, and cognitive/developmentalist theories of SLA. Questionnaire data was then analyzed to compare the differences between the two groups of students as well as determine discrepancies between respondents' beliefs and SLA theories.

  • Quantitative Methods: Mistakes to Avoid Reviewed

    Christopher Pirotto & Robert Dykes

    OnCUE Journal Special Issue   ( 1 )   176 - 184   2019.12

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    The implementation of standards for reporting quantitative methods results in many well known journals has created the image that language learning researchers are correctly reporting quantitative research. However, there are still strong suggestions being made that better methodological training for researchers within the language learning field is necessary. Drawing on the authors’ personal observations of conference presentations as well as conversations they had with many novice researchers, this paper outlines five common
    mistakes that researchers make in our field when using quantitative research methods. These mistakes are as follows: assuming non-statistically significant results are irrelevant, overvaluing statistically significant results and not reporting effect size, using incorrect effect size scales, forgetting to report certain statistical values, and changing the nature of a variable
    to fit a certain statistical test. This paper discusses each of these mistakes, provides reasons why these are mistakes, and includes advice on how to correct these mistakes. Reducing the number of times these mistakes are made will not only help to strengthen the quality of
    quantitative research within our field, but will also allow us to have more confidence in the decisions we make involving our classrooms and language learners.

  • Learners' beliefs about language learning: A factorial investigation Reviewed

    Christopher Pirotto

    JALT 2018: Diversity and Inclusion   162 - 168   2019.8

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    It is important for language instructors to understand the language learning beliefs of their students. A language learner’s beliefs about how a language should be learned can cause learners to question the teaching ability of their language instructors. In this paper, are presented the results of an investigation to identify the language learning beliefs of Japanese university EFL students. Data was collected from 206 individuals using Horwitz’s (2013) Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to identify 6 commonly held beliefs about language learning. These 6 beliefs are presented along with a discussion about how the instructor used these beliefs to implement change in the classroom.

  • A Factorial Investigation into the English Language Learning Anxiety of First-Year University Students in Japan Reviewed

    Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 48 )   2018.6

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    Anxiety in the foreign language classroom is an individual difference among learners that can have a direct impact on the success of learning foreign language. Through factor analysis this study aimed to classify different types of anxiety present in the English language classroom at a rural private Japanese university. Using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), 146 English language learners were surveyed. A five-factor solution was found with the factors interpreted as: anxiety related to oral production, attitudes regarding course enjoyment, degree of comfort when communicating with L1 speakers of English, comparison anxiety, and the fear of being unsuccessful or falling behind. It was found that this particular group of learners experience anxiety when forced to produce unprepared language output, when communicating with native speakers, and when there is potential to be compared to classmates.

  • Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference Reviewed

    Bradford Lee, Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   2017.5

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    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225 first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relationship to the two groups’ English proficiency to search for any statistically significant differences between the groups. It was found that the highest- and lowest-ranked learning styles (auditory learning and individual learning) were the same for both Group A (higher proficiency) and Group B (lower proficiency), but to a statistically significant degree of difference.
    Key Words : TESOL, Second Language Acquisition (SLA), Learner Style, Individual Differences

  • Tertiary-level English Education in Japan: A Study on Motivational Factors Reviewed

    Bradford Lee, Christopher Pirotto

    Memoirs of Fukui University of Technology   ( 47 )   2017.5

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    The complex processes involved in learning a second language include a multitude of cognitive and affective factors. One of these affective factors, motivation, has been suggested to be the most important element in learning, which influences the degree to which a second language will be acquired. This has made its study one of the most exciting and promising areas of research in second language acquisition over the past few decades. This study examined the motivations of a group of university students in Japan in regards to English education. Two groups (high and low proficiency) of first-year students (N = 85) were tested on four types of intrinsic motivation (interest in the English language, cultural interest, attitude towards learning English, and ethnocentrism). Correlational relationships were measured, with only ethnocentrism found to have a (small) statistically significant correlation with proficiency.
    Key Words : TESOL, Motivation, Second Language Acquisition, Individual Differences

  • Japan's Population Crisis: Determining the effectiveness of Japanese population policy

    Christopher Pirotto


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    The focus of this thesis is to determine which population policies have been effective in Japan to combat the decreasing population and low fertility rate. This thesis begins with explaining why the fertility rate has decreased in the last several decades and why the population is currently decreasing. There are many reasons why the fertility rate dropped and continues to remain well below replacement level. These reasons include high opportunity costs for women if they get married, traditional gender roles and expectations, a labor industry not conducive to a fair work and family balance, individuals choosing to live independently, a weak economy and economic concerns, and a decline of desirable partners. This thesis then explores the various policies the government has implemented in response to these problems. These policies all have the main objective of increasing the fertility rate. I hypothesize that workplace oriented policies are more effective population policies than child-rearing related policies. Original interview and survey questions were created to test this hypothesis by testing the knowledge of population policies, determine how friendly work environments are towards new parents, and measure the level of confidence in job security for individuals who wish to take advantage of policies such as childcare leave. Data was collected across four different regions in Japan between December 2014 and May 2015. At this time literature and government studies have largely ignored the issue of how effective specific population policies are. It is the hope that this thesis can provide a glimpse into which policies are not being as effective as they potentially could be while at the same time providing a blueprint and encouragement for other researchers to ask questions similar to those in this thesis.

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  • Complexity in Classroom Foreign Language Learning Motivation: A Practitioner's Perspective from Japan (Richard Sampson)

    Christopher Pirotto

    JALT Journal   ( 40 )   57 - 59   2018.5


  • Expectations and Realities of a Short-Term Study Abroad Program International conference

    Christopher Pirotto

    46th Annual International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning  全国語学教育学会

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    This presentation discusses the expectations and experiences of nine Japanese university students who participated in a sixteen-day short-term study abroad program to California. Data collected from both qualitative and quantitative sources will be discussed.

  • How to prepare the FLCAS for use in Japan

    Robert Dykes, Christopher Pirotto

    45th Annual International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning  全国語学教育学会

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    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) remains a popular research tool since its implementation in 1986. It has been observed that the FLCAS is a very sensitive measurement tool that is affected by cultural contexts. This poster explained why the unmodified FLCAS is not suitable for use in Japan and the steps that can be taken to modify the FLCAS for more suitable and reliable application in Japan.

  • FLCAS: A comparison of three models revisited

    Robert Dykes, Christopher Pirotto

    44th Annual International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning  全国語学教育学会

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    This presentation visits a comparison of three popular Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) models. This study applies the Paee and Misieng (2012) comparison to a different context of students to determine which is the most suitable FLCAS model for Japanese university students learning English.

  • Learner's beliefs about language learning: A factorial investigation

    Christopher Pirotto

    44th Annual International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning  全国語学教育学会

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    This presentation presents the results of a survey which investigated the language learning beliefs of 206 university-aged language learners. Factor analysis identified six commonly held beliefs. How the researcher used this knowledge in the classroom will be discussed.

  • Identifying ELL anxieties in the tertiary-level EFL classroom International conference

    Christopher Pirotto

    26th Korea TESOL International Conference  Korea TESOL

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    Anxiety in foreign language learners can not only have negative effects on the language learning process, but can also negatively affect the physical and mental health of language learners. Therefore, it is of moral imperative that language instructors attempt to reduce or eliminate anxiety causing factors. However, this cannot be done without first identifying those factors. This presentation will present original research into the language learning anxieties of university EFL learners. Results from a factor analysis of the Likert-based FLCAS survey identified several anxiety causing factors in a group of 156 first-year university students. Following that, the results from a post-test of the same FLCAS survey will be presented. Finally, the presenter will briefly make suggestions about specific anxiety causing factors.


Teaching Experience

  • TOEIC I, 2, 3, & 4

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology

  • Listening 1 & 2

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology

  • Basic Communication 1 & 2

    Institution:Fukui University of Technology